V0.2 - 17-04-2020
It might be noted that Europe was only mentioned in the first chapter describing the development of parachutes in general. In the second chapter, on the space race, there was basically no mention of nations besides the US and Russia. This does not mean that Europe, China and others have not been doing their own research.
Even though Europe has yet to use EDL technology in an active mission, Europe or ESA has done several experiments. One included the small Apollo capsule under the ARD mission. One mission that put Europe on the map was the IXV mission, the first lift-generating body performing a (suborbital) space flight.
Currently, China is one of the three nations that can bring and return humans to space. This is only something of the last 20 years, however, china did not sit still in the years before that. The human-to-space ambition of China goes back to the FSW satellites first launched in 1974.