Many if not most space missions that use a parachute system land on Earth. These missions can be crewed or uncrewed, have flown to distant worlds or just remained in low earth orbit. Some missions fly extremely challenging re-entry flight paths with very high velocities or use parachutes with the goal of reusing rocket stages.
Several crewed missions have or are using parachute recovery systems. There are currently three nations that have demonstrated the ability to launch a human and safely recovering the astronaut. Other nations are well on their way to perform this feat or have dropped their plans.
Sample return missions are missions that fly to an object in space and return a soil sample for scientific analysis. They are often missions that have small entry capsules with very high entry velocities.
The idea of reusing rockets is one that has been around for quite some time. Some of these concepts used parachute system to recover their rocket stages. This page gives an overview of ideas and attempts to safely land a rocket stage with a parachute system.
Sounding rockets are rockets that do not enter a stable orbit but fly a suborbital trajectory. These rockets often do not have significant atmospheric re-entry heat, but that does not make the EDL system less interesting.
Not every mission is organised and funded by governments or large companies. There are amateur space missions that attempt to shoot a sounding rocket into space, some even crewed!